Changes and suggestions for Chapter 5 Respiratory System

This table lists changes in blue and suggestions in green. The location of  each change and suggestion is specified by book page number, text column, and paragraph () in the column. The first line of text in a column begins the first paragraph in that column even if the first line begins in the middle of a sentence.

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CHAPTER 5 - Respiratory System

 

 

 

 

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coats the inner surface of the alveoli and parts of the smaller airways. The surfactant greatly increases the compliance of the lungs by reducing the attraction between the water molecules on the inner surfaces of the lungs. Without surfactant, the attraction (surface tension) would be so great that the alveoli and small airways would collapse. The inner surfaces would stick together tightly, making it nearly impossible for them to separate and fill with air during inspiration. These characteristics can be compared to the difference between the effort needed to inflate a new balloon or to put a hand into a new rubber glove that contains a powdery surfactant and the effort needed to inflate an old balloon or to put a hand into an old rubber glove that dried after becoming damp.

 

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Nervous System   Ventilation begins with inspiration, which requires the contraction of muscles. The nervous system signals activating these muscles originate in a region of the brain called the medulla oblongata and travel to the muscles through nerves. The medulla oblongata is inside the region of the skull just above the neck (Fig. 6.7). The part of it concerned with respiration is called the respiratory control center.

 

109 1 3 For some photos of respiratory diseases, go to Preserved  Specimen Photos  and to Microscope Slides.
For Internet images of normal lungs or respiratory system diseases, search the Images section of http://www.google.com/ for Lung, for Lung disease, or for the name of a particular disease. For diseases, I highly recommend searching WebPath: The Internet Pathology Laboratory , the excellent complete version of which can be purchased on a CD.
 
109 2 3 For current statistics on occurrence of any respiratory system diseases, go to the National Center for Health Statistics or to the American Lung Association .

For current statistics on lung cancer, go to the Center for Disease Control web pages at  http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/uscs/index.htm or 
http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/natlcancerdata.htm
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Sleep Apnea  A person has sleep apnea (SA) if he or she exhibits at least  five temporary cessations of ventilation per hour or exhibiting at least 10 occasions of depressed ventilation and cessation of ventilation per hour when asleep. The incidence of sleep apnea increases with age up to age 65, after which the incidence plateaus. It is present in 4 percent of younger adults but in 25 percent to 30 percent of people over age 64. The male:female ratio for SA is approximately 3:1.

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two systems are due partly to constriction of skin vessels and reductions in blood oxygen caused by smoking. These two changes develop within minutes of initiating smoking and can last for hours, long enough to light the next cigarette. The result is continuous inadequate blood flow in the skin and elevated blood pressure. In the eyes, smoking is associated with a higher incidence of cataracts and diseases of the retina. Smoking reduces estrogen levels in women and speeds up age-related thinning of bones. Smoking doubles the problems from non-insulin dependent diabetes; suppresses normal functioning of the immune system; promotes autoimmune diseases; reduces the sense of taste, the benefits from some vitamins, and liver function; and is associated with higher rates of reproductive system and digestive system cancers. Cessation of smoking is associated with reduction or complete reversal of these problems and risks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright 2006 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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