Changes and suggestions for Chapter 14 Endocrine System

The following table lists changes in blue and suggestions in green. The location of  each change and suggestion is specified by page number, text column, and paragraph () in the column. The first line of text in a column begins the first paragraph in that column even if the first line begins in the middle of a sentence.

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CHAPTER 14 Endocrine System

 

 

 

 

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, poor glucose tolerance, and usually other abnormalities in metabolism. Diabetics have FPG values above 140 mg/dl (above 126 mg/dl according to the American Diabetes Association) and final OGTT values above 200 mg/dl. High glucose levels, which may exceed 800 mg/dl, persist because of inadequate insulin production or high insulin resistance. As a result, muscle, liver, and fat cells cannot lower blood glucose adequately and the effect of glucagon, which raises blood glucose, remains unchecked.

308 1 6 For some photos of the effects and complications from diabetes, go to sections of Preserved  Specimen Photos and to Microscope Slides.
For Internet images of the effects and complications from diabetes, search the Images section of http://www.google.com/ for specific items (e.g., diabetic cataract, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic gangrene, diabetic kidney). For diseases, I highly recommend searching WebPath: The Internet Pathology Laboratory , the excellent complete version of which can be purchased on a CD.
 

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Two other effects of high blood glucose levels include; (a) increased risk of infection. This occurs because the glucose provides abundant nutrients for microbes, encouraging their rapid proliferation, and because the glucose inhibits defense functions by WBCs; (b) reduced oxygen carrying capacity by RBCs, because hemoglobin is distorted when glucose binds to it.
 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright 2006 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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